India: cases and investigations
Investigation of HIV in professional plasma donors: In early 1989, public health authorities learned that many of the blood products produced in India were HIV-positive. Acting promptly on this information, doctors in Mumbai, India, in 1989 tested 200 professional plasma donors who sold their plasma to organizations that produced blood products. Of these 200 donors, 86% (~172) were HIV-positive. Plasma sellers sold plasma an average of 3.5 times per week, and 90% had been doing so for 5 years. Source: Bhimani GV, Gilada IS. HIV prevalence in people with no fixed abode: a study of blood donorship patterns & risk determinants. 8th International Conference on AIDS, Amsterdam, 19-24 July 1992. Abstract MoC 0093.
Unexpected HIV infections in children and mothers, 1995-2003: Doctors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi diagnosed 109 children aged 3 weeks to 15 years with HIV infections during 1995-2003. For 21 children (19%) infections were suspected to have come from blood transfusions. For another 7 children (6.4%) with HIV-negative mothers, no risk was identified. The study assumed vertical transmission for 81 children (72%) because mothers were HIV-positive. For at least 13 of these HIV-positive mothers, infections appeared to have come from health care; these 13 women had HIV-negative husbands, reported no high-risk sexual behaviors, and had been transfused during surgery or delivery. Source: Lodha R, Upadhyay A, Kapoor V, et al. Clinical profile and natural history of children with HIV infection. Ind J Pediatr 2006; 73: 201-204. Abstract available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567911 (accessed 13 January 2012).