Kenya: cases and investigations
Unexpected HIV infections in children: A 2007-08 study in Kenya identified 11 children with unexpected HIV infections (with HIV-negative mothers). The children ranged in age from 8-11 years old, and all 11 had been diagnosed when they were 5-10 years old. Compared to HIV-negative siblings, HIV-positive children had received more infusions and injections to treat malaria, had received more dental care, and were more likely to have been hospitalized. Source: Okinyi M, Brewer DD, Potterat JJ (2009) Horizontally acquired HIV infection in Kenyan and Swazi children. Int J STD AIDS 20: 852-857. Summary data available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948900 (accessed 11 January 2012).
Unexpected infections in young adults, 1997-98: In 1997-98 survey among young adults aged 15-24 years in Kisumu, 10.8% (7/65) of young women who said they were virgins were HIV-positive vs 33.7% (122/362) of sexually active young women. The source that reports these data asserts that young women “misreported their sexual activity.” Is that so? For that matter, the high percentages of sexually active women with HIV are also hard to explain by sex (with 1 transmission in 1,000 coital acts). A lot of HIV infections in sexually active women may have come from blood exposures, including injections for birth control, sexual sores, and vaccinations to prevent neo-natal tetanus. Source: Buve A, Lagarde E, Carael M, et al. Interpreting sexual behavior data: validity issues in the multicentre study on factors determining the differential spread of HIV in four African cities. AIDS 2001; 15 (suppl 4): S117-S126. Abstract available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11686460 (accessed 27 January 2012).