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Zimbabwe: cases and investigations

Unexpected HIV infection in adolescents, 2001-02: A random sample national survey tested 1,807 young women aged 15-19 years for HIV infection. Out of the 192 who tested HIV-positive, 78 (41%) reported never having a sex partner. Source: Gavin L, Galavotti C, Dube H, et al. Factors associated with HIV infection in adolescent females in Zimbabwe. J Adolesc Health 2006: 39: 596.e11-18.

Unexpected HIV infections in adults, 1998-2003: To study risks for HIV infection in Manicaland, Eastern Zimbabwe, researchers first tested men and women, and then followed and retested initially HIV-negative men and women 3 years later to see who got HIV. At the time of the second test, researchers asked participants about their risks over the 3 year period. Having sex with someone over those 3 years vs. not having sex with anyone had little impact on risk for HIV, among women. Women who reported no sex partners over 3 years got HIV at the rate of 1.3% per year (19 infections in 1,510 person-years of follow-up) compared to 1.7% per year for women who had one or more sex partners (94 infections in 5,673 person years of follow-up). Men who reported no sex partners over three years nevertheless had substantial risk for HIV — such men got HIV at the rate of 0.9% per year (8 infections in 902 person years of follow-up). Men with one or more sex partners over 3 years got HIV at the rate of 2.2% per year (88 infections in 3,994 person years of follow-up). Source: Lopman B, Nyamukapa C, Mushati P, et al. HIV incidence in 3 years of follow-up of a Zimbabwe cohort – 1998-2000 to 2001-03: contributions to proximate and underlying determinants to transmission. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 88-103.

Unexpected infections in young adults, 2005: A random sample household survey in Chimanimani District in Eastern Zimbabwe in 2005 reported these results for young adults aged 15-24 years: Among young men, 5% who said they were virgins were HIV-positive vs. 5.6% of all young men. Among young women, 3.6% who said they were virgins were HIV-positive vs. 12.3% of all young women. Source: Pp 65 and 75 in: Gomo E, Rusakaniko S, Mashange W, et al. Household survey of HIV-prevalence and behavior in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe, 2005. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council press, 2006. Available at: (accessed 19 January 2012).

Unexpected infections in young adults, 2005-06: A 2005-06 random sample national survey reported these results for young adults aged 15-24 years: Among young men who said they were virgins, 2.6% were HIV-positive vs. 4.2% for all young men. Among young women who said they were virgins, 3.6% were HIV-positive vs. 11.0% for all young women. Source: Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zimbabwe] and Macro International Inc. 2007. Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06. Calverton, Maryland: CSO and Macro International, Inc. Available at: (accessed 19 Janaury 2012).

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